Products > Cashew Nut Kernels > Raw Cashew Nuts (RCN)

         DISPERSAL OF THE CASHEWS  

       The Cashew originates from North – Eastern Brazil. Portuguese traders and slave ships brought the cashew nut to India and Africa during the 16th century. From there, it was introduced into South East Asia and has been in Viet Nam since 18th century. However, no one knows how exactly the cashew nut was introduced to Viet Nam.
 
FAO records 1961 - 2000 show a steady increase in raw seed production commencing 1961. Viet Nam obtained 700 metric ton of raw seeds in 1961 – 700 metric ton in 1965 – 2100 metric ton in 1970 – 3500 metric ton in 1975 – 5600 metric ton in 1980 – 9000 metric ton in 1985 – 26000 metric ton in 1990 – 52800 metric ton in 1995 – 54000 metric ton in 1998 and 41200 metric ton in 2000.
 
Previously Vietnamese raw seed was sold to India for processing. However, raw seed export was quickly a thing of the past as the 1990s marked the emergence of Viet Nam as cashew nut kernel exporter in South East Asia with China being its first export market. China remains a vital market for Vietnamese cashew nut kernels with approximately 20% of the annual market share.

     POPULAR NAMES 

In Viet Nam, cashew nut is called hat dieu, cashew trees are called cay dieu.
India calls them Kaju.
In Burmese they are Thiho Si.
In the Philippines, cashew is called kasoy or balubad in Tagalog or Balogo in Hokano.
Indonesian uses the name kacang mete, jambu golok, jambu mente.
Thai calls them pomme cajou, pajuil, mamuang himmaphan.
Portuguese calls them caju, maca de caju, pe de caju.  
 
CULTIVARS
 
       There are a few named varieties and as a result a distinction is made only between those with yellow or red cashew apples. Test indicates that very large nuts usually have inferior kernels, low density and slow germination. In Viet Nam, old varieties have previously been grown, giving as low a yield as 0.8 metric ton per hectare. In an effort to improve variety and increasing yield production, new varieties have been applied and are giving a much improved yield of 1.2 – 1.8 metric ton per hectare. High yield cultivar have been selected based on flowering earlier and intensively, a degree of fruit development (a number of mature fruits present in same panicle and in same tree), productivity of nut & apple (kg of nut per 1m2 of tree branch), shape – size-weight of nut, and finally insect & disease resistance.
 
AREAS OF CULTIVATION
 
       Cashew trees have been cultivated and are growing in many different & vast locations, provinces such as Binh Phuoc – Dong Nai – Ba Ria Vung Tau – Binh Thuan – Lam Dong – Daklak – Gialai - Binh Dinh…etc.
 
ACREAGES
 
       Taking a look at 2011 statistics published by Vietnam Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development, there has been in total 393.000 hectares used to cultivate cashew trees nationwide. A distribution of 156.054 hectares in Binh Phuoc accounting for 40,85% of the country’s total cashew cultivation area, 49.052 hectares in Dong Nai and 36.400 hectares in Daklak. The balance of acreages is dispersed in Ba Ria Vung Tau, Binh Thuan, Binh Dinh...
 
PRODUCTION
 
        It is extremely difficult to accurately estimate crop size and production because it depends on cultivars insect growth before and after stage of flowering, practices of crop care, and most importantly weather conditions. 
 
CROP PROTECTION
 
       Cashew trees and nuts like all agricultural crops face insect pests and diseases which are a major source of crop loss. More than 60 species of insects attack the crop during different stages of growth.
 
Insect pests include sap-sucking bugs, leaf-chewing caterpillars, beetles, aphids, scales, thrips and some mites, adult weevils or borer
 
Cashew diseases include
 
IMPORTED RAW CASHEW NUTS
 
        Currently nationwide plants are being filled with a local annual production of 300.000 – 350.000 metric tons, which satisfies 50%-60% of processing capacity. As a result of demand up to 600.000 – 700.000 metric tons per year, imported raw seed plays an important role to offset the shortages....
 
A MATTER OF QUALITY
 
Whether sourcing imported raw seeds or local raw seeds, quality specifications have to be top priority in order to make sure of good kernels at processing. Otherwise a plant would deal with huge potential loss due to spotted, dessert, scorched, infested kernels. Raw seed trading is very complicated and risky because of the controversial matter of quality….
 
Once a sale contract of raw seed is concluded, the basic specifications like moisture (8%-10% max.) – Out turn guarantee (…lbs/80 kg min.) – Nut count (….nuts/kg max.) – Defectives (…% max.) shall be clearly and strictly mentioned in sales contract.  
 
Obviously different origins have different outturn which is more means better quality.
India                      50 – 56
Brazil                     50 – 55
Viet Nam               50 – 56
Indonesia             52 – 54
Myanmar               50 – 56
 

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